The erosion of siwaliks has been studied by glover and hamilton 1935 and gorrie 1951 and various methods have been suggested for soil conservation. Crop residue management to reduce erosion and improve soil quality can be obtained from the conservation technology information center, 1220 potter drive, room 170, west lafayette, in 47906 fax 3174945969, telephone 3174949555. Effects of soil bund and stonefaced soil bund on soil. This act established catchment boards and enabled the appropriation of government and local body funds to assist with the construction of erosion control measures and. Agronomic soil and water conservation measures learning. Lesson 4 agronomical measures for water erosion control. Socioeconomic factors in soil erosion and conservation john boardmana. Padmanabhan central research institute for dryland agriculture, santoshnagar, hyderabad 500 059 introduction land degradation is a major cause of productivity losses and soil erosion is the most serious one among the various factors affecting land degradation. Effects of soil and water conservation measures on soil quality. The soil and water conservation effects and key issues of protective cultivation in the loess plateau hao mingde1 abstract putting into practice protective cultivation in the loess plateau, there is a need to understand the key concepts of soil and water conservation, preserving soil moisture, and use. Cc21 revised 1959 questions and answers on soil and water conservation districts. Crop residue agricultural research management to conservation.
Unfortunately, this book cant be printed from the openbook. Indicators of soil loss land degradation encompasses a vast array of biophysical and socioeconomic processes, which make its assessment difficult to encapsulate in a few simple measures. Contour bunding consists of building earthen embankment at intervals across the slope and along the contour line of the field. Evidencebased soil conservation measures that improve soil physical and chemical properties and barley yield s oil degradation can be described as a reduction of resource potential by a combination of processes, such as soil erosion by water and wind, acting on the land and bringing about deterioration of the physical, chemical, and. Structural soil and water conservation measures introduction. Erosion processes and soil conservation technology 4. While others have connected erosion with loss ofproduction, we wiii consider mostly the mass. Soil conservation fao soils portal food and agriculture. Wocat, world overview of conservation approaches and technologies, launched in 1992, is a project of the world association of soil and water conservation waswc in collaboration with several institutions and coordinated by the university of bern, switzerland. Apr 18, 2015 agronomic measures of soil conservation in soil and water conservation programmes agronomic measures have to be considered in coordination with others for their effectiveness. Modern concepts of soil conservation sciencedirect. A series of such bund divide the area into strips and act as barrier to the flow of water.
Soil and water conservation and dryland farming in the. What is soil conservation and what are various ways to. The other five regions are appalachia and northeast, north central, northern great plains, southeast. This article throws light upon the top eight agronomic measures for soil and water conservation.
All mlras pitt county open sand pit on alaga soil in pitt county on tar river floodplain rill and gully erosion from unstabilized cut and fill slopes. The spatial and temporal patterns of soil erosion and the associated nutrient movement revealed by the mb method may provide valuable insights into the soil erosion processes in agricultural and natural lands. If you need to print pages from this book, we recommend downloading it as a pdf. It aims to promote the integration of successful soil and water conservation.
Biological measures of erosion control springerlink. Socioeconomic factors in soil erosion and conservation. It exploits resources while conserving them through moisture retention, fertility and soil conservation, which make the system less dependent on expensive inputs such as energy, machines. Updated inventory and assessment of soil protection policy. Soil water conservation measures pdf in soil and water conservation and soil protection and restoration from the. The data showed in addition that more soil stone bund terraces were implemented on steep land. Broadly categorizing there are two methods of soil conservation. Morgan agricultural soil erosion by both water and wind is a local scale problem in the uk, particularly on the sandy and sandy loam soils under continuous cereal production or market gardening in the midland and eastern counties of england. Farmers perception on the role of vetiver grass in soil and water conservation in south western ethiopia. Accelerated erosion due to misuse of resources of land, water and soil is today one. There are other soil conservation benefits categories beyond those reported here.
Conservation farming is a broadbased approach of land and water management. Mechanical or engineering soilconservation measures 4. Scientists have developed a set of recommendations and methods for sustaining the benefits of swc measures implemented in the ethiopian highlands over time. Soil erosion is a natural phenomenon by which soil is removed from rocks. In some systems they may be more effective than structural measures. A number of biological and agronomic management practices are available for controlling soil erosion. These measures can be applied together with physical or biological soil and water conservation measures.
Indigenous soil and water conservation in indias semi. The department has been implementing various soil and water conservation measures in arable land like earthen bunds, stone pitched contour bunds, vegetative hedges, contour staggered trenches, moisture conservation pits, etc to intercept rainfall where it falls and to obviate the chances of the runoff water from acquiring erosive velocities in arable land. Soil erosion and conservation 229 erosivity and erodibility for erosion to occur, there has to be a force to move the soil. Biological measures for soil and water conservation work by their protective impact on the vegetation cover. Sanghi introduction soil erosion is a problem that imposes both on and offfarm costs. Soil conservation is the combination of different integrated approaches with four major disciplines such. Unlike in other studies in the region, sex of the household head did not. However, soil erosion seriously limits agricultural productivity 9,10. Leaving crop residue on the soil surface during cropping has a number of clear advantages over tillage that leaves the soil surface bare. I hereby declare that the dissertation entitled farmers perception on the role of vetiver grass in soil and water conservation in south western ethiopia.
Targets for rehabilitation using these measures are those areas exhibiting advanced soil erosion and degradation. The conventional western approach to land conservation is a recent phenomenon in ethiopia, though farmers do use traditional measures. If you see something thats making the soil sick, do everything you can to make the soil healthy again. The most common agronomical practices used for soil and water conservation, are discussed below. Huge amount of soil particles that are washed away settle in farm areas in the lowlands through surface runoff thereby destroying agricultural crops. Soil quality assessment soil quality assessment in conservation planning united states department of agriculture natural resources conservation service soil quality institute january 2001 the u. Soil conservation refers not only to mechanical protection measures but includes all aspects of land use planning, development and management which. Contour farming, crop rotation, strip cropping, choice of crops, mulching, cover crop, reforestation, mixed crop, wind breaks are major biological soil conservation methods.
Soil conservation is the best way to make sure that we have the land we need to live on or, in my case, live in. Therefore, this study concentrated on the role of vetiver grass for soil and water conservation in tulube peasant. Residue management to reduce erosion and improve soil quality. Greater distance from home to farmland, smaller land to labor ratio and larger family size are factors that decreased adoption. Soil and water conservation measures in degraded watershed of kandhamal district, odisha. Soil erosion measurement and soil conservation research in. As soil erodes, valuable moisture nd nutrients are lost, and the topsoil becomes increasingly shallow.
The main aim of these practices is to reduce or prevent either water erosion or wind erosion, while achieving the desired moisture for sustainable production. Degraded areas, denuded gullies, and steep slopes contribute greatly to the sedimentation and siltation of stream channels. Furthermore, it is the cheapest way of soil and water conservation. There is a lack of knowledge about soil conservation practices in agriculture and little understanding of how farmers can be encouraged through appropriate policy measures to adopt soil conservation practices. Sep 07, 2015 number of studies published on soil erosion and conservation in ethiopia, as documented in the web of sciencetm database accessed february 2015. Soil and water conservation measures for alternate land use systems m. This article throws light upon the top nine biological methods for controlling soil erosion caused by water. Soil conservation is the practice of protecting the soil against erosion or deterioration. Agronomic soil conservation measures use of vegetation. Guidelines for soil quality assessment in conservation. Evidencebased soil conservation measures that improve. Soil conservation measures should aim at preventing or at least minimising the soils loss. The contribution of soil and water conservation to.
Hence, the use agronomic practices for soil and water conservation is vital for climate change adaptation and mitigation because it can give both productive role producing food, fodder, fuel. The study was conducted to evaluate the effects swc measures on soil quality indicators in geshy subcatchment, gojeb river catchment, ethiopia. Also the area lost due to siltation in the down stream field was sh 2 area was lost in control and less area 0. Top 8 agronomic measures for soil and water conservation. Soil conservation is a preservation technique, in which deterioration of soil and its losses are eliminated or minimized by using it within its capabilities and applying conservation techniques for protection as well as improvement of soil. Soil conservation measures agriculture planning and. This new volume is the first independent analysis of an important national data base, the national resources. Soil conservation and management in developing countries.
Soil erosion, use of chemical pesticides and herbicides, unsustainable agricultural practices, excessive farming, water pollution and land pollution are some of the aspects upsetting the natural functions of the soil. Cc21 revised 1959 questions and answers on soil and water. It happens over many spatial scales from the site of impact of a. Conclusion biological method of soil conservation is various ways of maintaining a cover of vegetation during the periods of high erosion threat. The soil and water conservation effects and key issues. Indigenous soil and water conservation in indias semiarid tropics john kerr and n. Structural rehabilitation measures such as checkdams, riprap or stone walls, bench terracing, and gabions are considered very effective as rehabilitation measures. Pdf economic measures of soil conservation benefits. A field method for soil erosion measurements in agricultural and natural lands. Methods for sustaining soil and water conservation measures. Agronomic measures of soil conservation in soil and water conservation programmes agronomic measures have to be considered in coordination with others for their effectiveness. The eu funded project sustainable agriculture and soil conservation soco is aiming to fill this gap. Pdf, epub, full text, audio unceasing customer service.
Effect of soil conservation measures on some physicochemical. Metu district submitted by me for the partial fulfillment of the m. Hugh hammond bennett, a native of anson county, earned the title father of soil conservation through his efforts to awaken the country to the impact of soil erosion on food production and the economic health of rural communities. Department of agriculture, agricultural research service, crr40, 68 pp. Methods for sustaining soil and water conservation measures in ethiopia water, land and ecosystems. Dec 19, 2016 conclusion biological method of soil conservation is various ways of maintaining a cover of vegetation during the periods of high erosion threat. Compensatory measures can include the use of selected tillage methods together with complementary soil management and conservation techniques. These measures are effective in low rainfall areas particularly in fairly erosion resistant soils having gentle slope usda prohibits discrimination in all its programs and activities on the basis of. However, the system of agriculture based on clean cultivated row crops made soil conservation a difficult proposition. A permanent soil cover is maintained with cover crops, crop residues or mulch. The data showed in addition that more soilstone bund terraces were implemented on steep land. Soil erosion has been continuing over, such a large part of india.
The decline ina yields that results is a private cost borne by farmers. In order to do this proper land utilisation coupled with agricultural practices should be adopted. Some possible agronomic measures are shown in the figure right. Ca encourages application of modern technologies that enhance the quality and ecological integrity of the soil. Thesis paper on farmers perception on the role of vg for swc.
They may be deposited on the neighbors farm or several states downwind. Mechanical or engineering soil conservation measures 4. Shearing stress caused by wind is this force in wind erosion and its ability to erode is. Fieldbased soil and water conservation field based soil and water conservation measures are essential for insitu conservation of soil and water. These measures are effective in low rainfall areas particularly in fairly erosion resistant soils having gentle slope soil conservation measures are as follows. Evidencebased soil conservation measures that improve soil. It aims to promote the integration of successful soil and water conservation approaches and techniques into land use.
Soil and water conservation measures for alternate land. This loss of cropland to the effects of soil erosion often results in the. No tillage, along with other soil conservation practices, are the cornerstones of ca dumanski et al. Aspects of swcspr measures in the watershed develop ment approach, and. Erosion processes and soilconservation technology 4. These measures help to intercept raindrops and reduce the splash effects, help better intake of rainwater, provide more opportunity time for rainwater to infiltrate into soil and help to reduce runoff generation due to perfect crop geometry. The problem of soil conservation is very complicated and is receiving attention of scientists and engineers. Investing in the application of soil conservation measures is only meaningful when erosion rates are higher than accept able. Measures for soil and water conservation soil management. Effects of soil conservation measures on erosion rates and. Plant canopy protect the soil from the adverse effect of rainfall. Soil conservation is a preservation technique, in which deterioration of soil and its losses are eliminated or minimized by using it within its capabilities and applying conservation techniques for. Soil conservation is a need to reduce soil fertility depletion and achieve. Department of agriculture usda prohibits discrimination in all its programs and activities on the basis of.
It occurs over a variety of timescales from a single storm to many decades. Describe measures of soil conservation get the answers you need, now. As part of an ongoing collaborative research programme between the university of wolverhampton, uk and yunnan agricultural university yau, china, investigations into soil erosion and conservation in yunnan province were initiated in 1993. Soil erosion and conservation 231 suspension refers to the transport of very small soil particles that are gen erally removed from the local source area. Crops and vegetables which cover the ground surface well and have extensive root system reduce soil erosion. In order to keep the land productive, a good conservation program is imperative. Contents page abstract i list of boxes, tables and figures iv acronyms iv 1 introduction 1 rethinking natural resource degradation a livelihoods approach to soil and water conservation introduction to the case studies 2 tanzania 4 background to the case study area farming systems and soil and water conservation. Most obvious is the greatly reduced erosion from wind. Soil and water conservation is the basis of such a program, and also helps improve land impoverished by erosion and overusemakes it more productive so that it can support more people. Biological soil and water conservation measures learning content. For effective conservation of soil and water, we must treat and use the. Pdf the role of agronomic practices on soil and water. Thus, the effectiveness of several agronomic and soil management conservation measures need to be assessed. Soil and water conservation measures for alternate land use.
If you see your soil eroding, protect it with grass or plants. Conservation effects worksheet benchmark management system name address resource setting resource problems before treatment mined land rms. To minimize the problem of soil erosion, adaptation of suitable soil and water conservation swc measures and cultivating suitable crops is the most critical factor manivannan et al. Soil conservation includes all those measures which help in protecting the soil from erosion and exhaustion. The benefit values are regional dollarperton measures of 14 different categories of soil conservation benefits. Important among these are notill, reduced tillage, crop rotations, cover crops, residue and canopy cover management, vegetative filter strips, riparian buffers, agroforestry, and soil synthetic conditioners. Manual on integrated soil management and conservation practices. These measures are effective in low rainfall areas particularly in fairly erosion resistant soils having gentle slope soil conservation are as follows. Some of the methods that must be adopted for conserving soil are as follows.656 1075 1595 208 791 945 570 277 1023 354 327 1403 1618 976 260 945 1240 204 1540 1558 314 802 1551 987 92 994 889 466 1399 988 569 1236 765 394 1440 1245 218 549 659 520 704 1252 743 404